Mobile Learning

What Does Mobile Learning Mean?

Mobile Learners & Tools

A good place to start in any discussion of a topic is to consider your definitions. As I’ve been working on this post, I think I’ve come to the conclusion that it’s more important to center the discussion on mobile learners than it is mobile tools. In other words, I think mobile learning is defined more by the mobility of the learners and the context of learning than it is about the tools those learners are using (see “Mobile Learning”). According to The World Is Open, “With mobile devices, the educational event or activity follows the learner, instead of the learner having to arrive at a designated place in which to acquire it. Access, access, and more access is demanded everywhere one travels” (Bonk, 2010, p. 293). Mobile learners are able to access academic material or complete their coursework as they move through their day: as they wait in line at the DMV, as they sit on a park bench on their lunch break from work, or as they ride on the metro on their way home. Mobile students move across contexts as they study and learn.

So what tools are “mobile” tools? Because I think that mobile learning can be conceptualized as being more about the mobility of the learner than the tool, I prefer not to include laptops as a “mobile” tool. Laptops are “transportable computers…one moves it from place to place, working at each of those places. But, one doesn’t use a laptop computer while one is moving about” (Norris & Solloway, 2013). In a 2015 Educause study, around 40% of students say they wished their instructors used smartphones or tablets more frequently (Dahlstrom, Brooks, Grajek, S. & Reeves, 2015).  Similarly, the number of students who do access academic resources on mobile devices is quickly rising: in 2013, 67% of students’ tablets and smartphones were used for educational purposes, which is nearly double from the previous year (Chen & deNoyelles, 2013). Clearly, post-secondary students are using their mobile devices (not just transportable laptops) to access academic content, which makes a discussion of mobile learning timely and relevant to higher education.

Context is Critical

According to a blog post exploring mobile learning’s impact on instructional design, “mobile learning assumes that modern learners are continuously in motion, and allows students to learn the right thing, at the right time, in the right place. This immediacy could increase the effectiveness of authentic and situated learning tasks by giving students the ability to approach a topic in real time, as they go about their daily routine” (Remington, 2015). In other words, mobile learning has the potential to adapt to the context of learning.

 

Venn diagram. Social aspect, digital aspect, and learner aspect all intersect in mobile learning, which is at the center.
Source: Koole’s FRAME Model. https://www.jisc.ac.uk/full-guide/mobile-learning. (“Mobile Learning,” 2015).

I particularly like this diagram of mobile learning, which explains mobile learning as the intersection of the social aspect, device aspect, and learner aspect. In the next section, I will first consider the intersection of Learner and Device, and then consider the intersection of the Social aspect and the Learner.

Designing for Mobility

If you are an instructor designing a course, you probably recognize that your mobile students will access your course content in a variety of contexts. According to Remington (2015), “Whether or not you formally design curriculum for mobile learning, it will exist. Learners will find ways to consume content and learn in different environments. So embrace that concept!” So how can we embrace the concept of mobile learners?

Practically Speaking

Device Usability

First, I think it’s important to consider a few practical elements of design that can make mobile learning more or less effective. How do learners interact with their mobile devices? (This is the “device usability” section of the diagram above). Obviously, viewing content on a mobile device is different than viewing it on a laptop or desktop. The way we use these devices, the contexts in which we use these devices, and the physical ways we interact with these devices are quite different (Buff, 2013). According to an article by ICS Learning Group, “While audience and content vary, one constant that is largely accepted; an mLearning module that tries to be like an eLearning module does not make for a great learning experience” (Gipple and Lord). If you’ve ever tried to scroll sideways on a smartphone or accidentally hit “cancel” instead of “submit” because the buttons were too close on a small screen, you know the frustration of trying to interact with a device that isn’t designed for mobility.

In order to take into account the needs of your mobile learners, you may want to think about things like screen size and file download limits. Unlike students working entirely on laptops, students who use smartphones for schoolwork are perhaps using up their (limited) phone’s data plan (Buff, 2013). Also consider your use of flash or other things that may not work across all devices. Remember that scrolling or typing essays can be difficult in a mobile context. An Inside Higher Ed article suggests that when designs for mobile learning could be “chunked, and be less about typing and text.  Video capture could replace typing.  Short statements could replace long paragraphs” (Kim, 2013). When in doubt, try out Google’s URL Tester to see if a course will work for the mobile learner (Avey, 2016).

The Benefit of Apps

When we use mobile devices to learn, we can access a variety of apps that can broaden learning, fill in knowledge gaps, and enhance academic productivity (West, 2013). For example, teachers could compile a list of reference apps and encourage students to use those apps. In an Educause study by Chen and deNoyelles (2013), these were some of the most common apps that mobile learners said they used on a regular basis:

An Inside Higher Ed blog post explains that:

We universally dislike the browser based learning management system (LMS), and universally love our phones.  We love apps.We love apps because they are purpose built, simple, lightweight, cheap, and fast. Imagine a mobile first online learning platform that strips away all the unwanted features of the LMS.  No more complicated gradebook.  No more list of features that we never use.  Only a method to collaborate, share materials, complete and collect assignments, engage in formative assessment, and build a community in the class (Kim, 2016).

The power of mobile learning is maximized when students are encouraged to take advantage of the unique features of mobile devices.

Pedagogically Speaking

Connectivity

Mobile learning has a unique potential to enhance student learning, and can be particularly powerful when courses for mobile learners are designed to play to the strengths of mobile devices. For example, mobile learning can be a uniquely connective and social process. (This speaks to the intersection of “social aspect” and “learner aspect” in the diagram above). Bonk (201o) describes that more people and resources are “fully loaded in the teaching and learning loop” (p. 353). Mobile devices offer instant opportunities for connection; more connection with resources, but also more connection with other like-minded learners. As Remington (2015) describes, “Social media has created a culture where people have near-instantaneous contact with any other person, anywhere in the world. By focusing on Mobile Learning, instructional designers can take advantage of this culture to further improve learning opportunities” (Remington, 2015). With mobile tools, “interacting with a learning community could become organic to activities of daily living” (Kim, 2016). Essentially, mobile learning creates new opportunities for connectivity with other learners as we move throughout our day and access learning spaces in a variety of contexts.

Learner-Centered and User-Generated Content

Some argue that mobile learning is more learner-centered. Access–instant, flexible, and varied–characterizes mobile learning. As The World Is Open describes, “The emergence of mobile and wireless technologies for learning— which place educational opportunities literally in the learner’s hands and allow him to schedule learning when he wants it—has paralleled the growing acceptance of a more learner-centered educational philosophy” (Bonk, 2010, p. 295). “mLearning” has become a common abbreviation for mobile learning. As you may imagine, the “m” usually stands for “mobile.” Sergio (2012) argues that the “m” could “just as easily” represent “me” (Sergio, 2012). Mobile learning has the potential to be centered on the needs of the learner.

Designing for mobile learners also means we encourage movement across contexts and user-generated content. Jisc explains that a “holistic” approach to mobile learning “is to engage the learner in creating user-generated content and engaging through audio, video and other features of mobile devices in the learning experience” (“Mobile Learning”). An Educause article also explains that mobile learning offers an opportunity to create user generated content, explaining that, “Devices such as smartphones, tablets, and e-book readers connect users to the world instantly, heightening access to information and enabling interactivity with others. Applications that run on these devices let users not only consume but also discover and produce content” (Chen & deNoyelles, 2013).

Mobile learning, then, represents this intersection of the Learner Aspect, Device Aspect, and Social Aspect. Considering these three elements of mobile learning will help us maximize the potential of mobile devices to positively influence higher education.

References

Avey, S. (2016, January 6). Mobile-ready education: Making education more accessible. [Web log comment]. Yale Center for Teaching and Learning. Retrieved from https://campuspress.yale.edu/yctl/tag/mobile-learning/

Bonk, C. (2010). The world is open: How web technology is revolutionizing education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Buff, T. (2013, October 8). Top 5 design considerations for creating mobile learning. [Web log comment]. eLearning Industry. Retrieved from https://elearningindustry.com/top-5-design-considerations-for-creating-mobile-learning

Chen, B. & deNoyelles, A. (2013, October 7). Exploring students’ mobile learning practices in higher education. Educause Review. Retrieved from http://er.educause.edu/articles/2015/6/~/link.aspx?_id=F2A5EF6E40704CAC8729BEDA7514E1AF&_z=z

Dahlstrom, E., Brooks, C., Grajek, S. & Reeves, J. (2015, August 17). ECAR study of undergraduate students and information technology, 2015. Educause. Retrieved from http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/2015-student-and-faculty-technology-research-studies

Gipple, J. & Lord, E. Understanding mobile learning and best practices. ICS Learning Group. Retrieved from http://www.icslearninggroup.com/whitepapers/understanding-mobile-learning-and-best-practices/

Kim, J. (2016, May 11). 3 theories why we are intrigued by mobile learning. [Web log comment]. Inside Higher Ed. Retrieved from https://www.insidehighered.com/blogs/technology-and-learning/3-theories-why-we-are-intrigued-mobile-learning

Mobile learning. Jisc. (2015, November 12). [Web log comment]. Retrieved from https://www.jisc.ac.uk/guides/mobile-learning

Norris, C. & Solloway, E. (2013, June 5). Is a laptop a mobile computer? And why is that even an important question? [Web log comment]. The Journal. Retrieved from https://thejournal.com/articles/2013/06/05/is-a-laptop.aspx

Sergio, F. (2012, May 31). 10 ways that mobile learning will revolutionize education. [Web log comment]. Fast Company. Retrieved from https://www.fastcodesign.com/1669896/10-ways-that-mobile-learning-will-revolutionize-education

Remington, K. (2015, April 23). Mobile learning’s impact on instructional design. [Web log comment]. Designed to Learn. Retrieved from http://lpd.nau.edu/mobile-learning-impact/

West, D. M. (2013, September). Mobile learning: Transforming education, engaging students, and improving outcomes. Center for Technology Innovation at Brookings. Retrieved from https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/06/BrookingsMobileLearning_Final.pdf

Wong, W. (2012, June 1). How mobile devices are changing higher education. Community College Daily. Retrieved from http://www.ccdaily.com/Pages/Technology/How-mobile-learning-devices-are-changing-the-face-of-higher-ed.aspx

 

 

 

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Web Presence

Web Presence and Digital Footprints

A formal definition of “web presence” reads as follows: “A web presence is a location on the World Wide Web where a person, business, or some other entity is represented” (“Web Presence,” 2016). An obvious interpretation of the concept of “web presence” is simply, “being present online.” Another given definition, which I feel more accurately captures the nuances of the term, states that “web presence” is, “The art and science of being found online” (Pick, 2011). Developing a web presence is both an art and a science. Loosely speaking, it’s an “art” because of the creativity one must exercise to craft an accurate and positive presence. However, it’s also a “science” because it requires logic and strategy.

After considering this, I concluded that I’d like my personal definition of web presence to be, “the art and science of being present online.” I chose to flip the last part of the previous definition. While it’s important to be “found” online, that is more passive; it’s something that happens to you. I would prefer to define web presence in a proactive sense. A person can still achieve a strong and positive web presence without being dependent on others to “find” them.What I think? Web presence is the art and science of being present online.

As described in the assignment prompt, digital footprints are the “intentional or unintentional traces that you leave behind when you visit web pages, search for information, post on Facebook, tweet, shop online, or engage in similar activities.” Wikipedia (2016) similarly classifies our “digital footprints” into two categories–active and passive, or intentional and unintentional. According to this article,
“A passive digital footprint is created when data is collected without the owner knowing, whereas active digital footprints are created when personal data is released deliberately by a user for the purpose of sharing information about oneself by means of websites or social media.” (“Digital Footprint,” 2016). Clearly, our digital footprint defines and influences our web presence.

Curating Your Web Presence

If web presence is “the art and science of being present online,” than it is the sum of active and passive digital footprints that creates a web presence. In the tangible world, we “walk” where we want to be present. Digital footprints are no different–we should “walk” in the locations in which we want to have a “web presence.” What does this look like?

  • The “art” of web presence requires creativity. This means we walk in unexpected places; we try out new ways of expressing ourselves, and we seek out new opportunities to learn and engage with other like-minded individuals and groups. I think this can more easily relate to “active” digital footprints. In this sense, we intentionally travel to new and familiar places on the web, with the goal of establishing a positive and strong web presence.
  • The “science” of web presence requires strategy. As much as possible, a well-crafted web presence seeks to turn as many “passive” digital footprints as possible into “active” digital footprints. This requires analyzing and interpreting privacy settings, cookies, and other tracking tools, so that you become aware of all of the digital footprints you’re creating.

Passive Digital Footprints

Turning passive digital footprints into active digital footprints requires an element of digital fluency. According to Posner, Varner, and Croxall (2011), you should avoid signing up for any digital tool or social media platform “without understanding what it does with your data, whether you can maintain the privacy you want, and the conventions that govern the way the community operates” (para. 6). This “familiarity” informs my knowledge of privacy settings, and prevents “passive” digital footprints from taking my web presence where I do not want it to go.

As described by Dachis (2011), many sites use cookies to track your footprints on the web, and “As long as there’s a “tweet this” or “follow me” button on the site, Twitter harvests information on where you are” (para. 3). According to this Dachis (2011), if you don’t like the idea of creating passive digital footprints as a result of participation in a site like Twitter, you can take advantage of tools like Disconnect, Ghostery, or Do Not Track Plus. Alternatively, according to Reilly (2014), many sites use so use SSO to track your web movements. Any time you use your Facebook or Google credentials to sign up for a third-party website, “Facebook is watching, following, and cataloging your destination points” (para. 4). By becoming aware of how common sites I visit use cookies or a SSO to track my digital movements, I can more intentionally monitor and direct my passive digital footprints.

Active Digital Footprints

Adjusting privacy settings and learning about the ways in which online behavior is being tracked can help identify when passive digital footprints are being created. However, creating active digital footprints requires strategy, too. As you curate and develop your online presence, you should consider the interests and policies of employers or future employers, or of students. Who will see your work? Who will benefit from your work? What do you want them to see?

Creating strong, active, digital footprints isn’t just about avoiding posting things that I don’t want them to see, or avoiding the creation of passive digital footprints. It’s also about curating quality work. Typos, inaccuracies, plagiarism, and copyright violations could all harm my professional credibility. Active digital footprints require attention to detail and intentionality in the content and quality of your curation. The more I strive to create active digital footprints, too, over passive digital footprints, the more you will be in control of what I’d like to share publicly, and what I’d like to keep private.

According to Richardson (2011), “transparency fosters connections and with a willingness to share our work and, to some extent, our personal lives. Sharing is the fundamental building block for building connections and networks” (ASCD). Creating active digital footprints, though, means that I choose what you share. I choose where I walk. Consequently, I have power to create a web presence that reflects as much or as little of my personal or professional life as I choose.

Web Presence for Students

According to Richardson (2011), modes of learning are changing. Richardson quotes author John Seely Brown as stating,

“these shifts demand that we move our concept of learning from a “supply-push” model of “building up an inventory of knowledge in the students’ heads” (p. 30) to a “demand-pull” approach that requires students to own their learning processes and pursue learning, based on their needs of the moment, in social and possibly global communities of practice” (para. 7).

What does a “demand-pull” model of education look like in practice? In this type of new learning environment, students use the tools available to take control of their own learning and their own work. Students develop a web presence; students actively walk into places on the web where education and their interests meet. Traditional models of learning emphasized the transfer or knowledge. Perhaps, now, “we need to focus more on developing the learning process—looking at how kids collaborate with others on a problem, how they exercise their critical thinking skills, how they handle failure, and how they create” (Rebora, 2010, p. 20). Digital tools and network literacy offer students an opportunity to take charge of their own learning, to curate a collection of their own work, and to personally explore subjects that interest them. In other words,

“More than ever before, students have the potential to own their own learning—and we have to help them seize that potential. We must help them learn how to identify their passions; build connections to others who share those passions; and communicate, collaborate, and work collectively with these networks. And we must do this not simply as a unit built around “Information and Web Literacy.” Instead, we must make these new ways of collaborating and connecting a transparent part of the way we deliver curriculum from kindergarten to graduation” (“What Students Need to Know,” para. 2).

By developing a web presence, students have the opportunity to “own” their own learning. As an educator, I should be aware of the power of online presence, not just for knowledge, but for learning.

Web Presence for Educators

Many articles focus on the “resume-building” or “image-creating” or “networking” power of a strong web presence. While those are certainly some side effects of a strong and positive web presence, I think that I prefer to conceptualize the development of my web presence as a natural byproduct of an organic pursuit of my interests.

To provide a comparison, some people will attempt to establish a relationship with another individual simply because they think that person could help get them a job. Yet, others see networking as an opportunity to get to know people who are interested in the same things that interest you; you are curious about their perspective, and as a result, you are eager to build a relationship with them. In this second perspective of networking, the networking becomes a learning process in and of itself instead of a means to an end.

I’d like to view web presence in a similar fashion. Some people will develop a web presence because it is a way to strategically support their resume or help them “be Googled better.” It’s a means to an end. Although that is part of web presence, I personally would like to develop a stronger web presence because it can become a learning process in and of itself. By being “present” in certain places online, I can access new ideas and knowledge. I can travel places online that speak to my own interests and develop my own skills.

We are continually learning, and by developing a strong and positive web presence, we have an opportunity to take control of that learning and direct its path. It’s an art: so, creatively search out new opportunities and engage with new individuals and groups. But it’s also a science: so, be intentional and strategic.

Works Cited

Dachis, A. (2011, Oct. 14). Establishing a professional web presence this weekend. Lifehacker. (Web log comment). Retrieved from http://lifehacker.com/5850029/establish-a-professional-web-presence-this-weekend

Digital footprint. (2016, Sept. 22). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_footprint

Posner, M., Varner, S., & Croxall, B. (2011, Feb. 14). Creating your web presence: A primer for academics. The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved from http://www.chronicle.com/blogs/profhacker/creating-your-web-presence-a-primer-for-academics/30458

Pick, T. (2011, Oct. 11). What is web presence optimization, and why should I care? Webbequity. (Web log comment). Retrieved from http://webbiquity.com/social-media-marketing/what-is-web-presence-optimization-and-why-should-i-care/

Rebora, A. (Interviewer) & Richardson, W. (Interviewee). (2010, Oct. 11). Change agent. Education Week Teacher PD Sourcebook, 4 (1), p. 20. Retrieved from: http://www.edweek.org/tsb/articles/2010/10/12/01richardson.h04.html

Reilly, R. B. (2014, Oct. 8). The cookie is dead. Here’s how Facebook, Google, and Apple are tracking you now. Venture Beat. (Web log comment). Retrieved from http://venturebeat.com/2014/10/06/the-cookie-is-dead-heres-how-facebook-google-and-apple-are-tracking-you-now/

Richardson, W. (2008, Nov.) Footprints in the digital age. Educational Leadership, 66 (3), pp. 16-19. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/nov08/vol66/num03/Footprints-in-the-Digital-Age.aspx

Web presence. (2016, Aug. 21). In Wikipedia. Retrieved from https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_presence

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Not-So-Final Project

Part 1: Digital Activism Learning Module

I created a Digital Activism learning module for an entirely online, asynchronous Introduction to Political Science course. The target audience would be college freshman, but the course would probably include nontraditional college students as well. I envision this module would be situated after a lesson on traditional political activism, and would come before a lesson on democracies and non-democracies. As of now, I have it organized to extend over 1 week, but depending on whether this was a semester/10-week course, I may spread it out longer than that because the work load may be a little too much for 1 week for a 100-level course as it stands now.

You can find the learning module here. Once you click on that link, you should be able to click on “enroll in the course,” and then “go to the course,” and then “module” on the lefthand side. The module is entitled, “digital activism.”

I enjoyed creating this final learning module. Many of my ideas came from the work I did for this blog post, and it was nice to have an opportunity to expand on those ideas in a pedagogical context.

Part 2: Thinking About Your Thinking

Part 2 of the Not-So-Final Project prompts us to explain how our thinking about digital citizenship has changed over the course. I created a visual explanation of my evolving views on the term “digital citizenship.” This assignment was particularly influential in the development of my own conceptualization of “digital citizenship.”

DIGITAL CITIZENSHIP

 

Part 3: Advice for Future Students

In Part 3, we were asked to advise students who will be taking this class next year. My advice for future students can be summed up into three main ideas:

  • First, think before you create. You will enjoy quite a bit of flexibility in the assignments—and, now that I recognize that flexibility, I think it would’ve been neat to be more intentional about the products I created. Rather than creating piecemeal projects that touched on different issues, I think it would have been helpful if I had some sort of “master plan” that I used to direct the subject matter / content for at least some of the assignments (it is probably not possible or even desirable to have all of the assignments go towards one type of project or theme). Before starting the class, consider and make a list of what kinds of issues you want to learn about. Too, this class was the first class that I extensively used my personal website, and I think it would’ve been helpful to spend some time considering (before I started posting), how I wanted it to be organized, how I wanted to tag posts, etc. Consider this early on in the course, so you can start off on the right foot.
  • Secondly, connect! Not surprisingly, studies show that students feel more satisfied with online learning experiences the more that they connect and engage with other students and the instructor. If you’re not comfortable initiating collaborative opportunities, just try and hop on when you see other students forming groups. I think you’ll find it to be one of the most rewarding parts of the course. The cohort in this class was extremely knowledgeable about digital tools and educational practices, and so I learned quite a bit merely from listening to my classmates, reading their blog posts, and participating in collaborative opportunities.
  • Lastly, plan to devote more time than you’ll think you will need. If you finish early, start working ahead, because you want to give yourself extra time if you get stuck on something, or, even better, if you really get into something and want to devote more time to it. I think you could easily spend 1 hour or 10 hours on a single assignment. You could choose to do the assignment efficiently and meet the requirements, or, you could spend all day, allowing yourself to go down rabbit holes, try new tools, explore new approaches, etc. I think it’s best to do a combination of both approaches. Be creative and explore when you can, and other times, practice efficiency for the sake of time management. Be strategic and enjoy the creative process!
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Grok and Korg: Defining Digital Citizenship

Comparing Ideas about Digital Citizenship

In this assignment, we were asked to create a blog entry that explicitly brings together one of our blog posts and two (or more) posts by other students. I decided to return to Collection 2’s posts on digital citizenship definitions.

In Collection 2, we were asked to come up with a definition of digital citizenship before researching or consulting any outside material (the “Where Are You Now” post). In other words, what were our preconceived notions about the idea of digital citizenship? I chose to compare and contrast these posts because I was curious to see what kinds of “digital citizenship” ideas people had coming into the course. The course syllabus gives the catalog definition of the course, explaining that it involves, “An examination of critical elements of digital citizenship [whatever that is, if it exists at all].” If the instructor believes “digital citizenship” to be such an ambiguous and fluid term, I expect that I will find quite a variance in the “Where Are You Now?” posts, which makes this an interesting exercise.

What Do I Think?

In my Where Are You Now? post, I started off by discussing the traditional definitions of citizenship. As a political science instructor, I frequently discuss the concept of “citizenship,” and so I wrote about how adding “digital” to the term “citizenship” does or does not change the meaning. Basically, I concluded that citizenship bestows certain rights, incurs particular obligations, and denotes group membership. Digital citizenship, then, means you are entitled to certain rights online, you have certain obligations when you’re interacting digitally, and you are offered you an opportunity to participate in digital community.

And In Comparison…

In Sarah’s post, she provided a list of general guidelines that make a good “digital” participant. Interestingly, she based her list off of the rules from various online communities that she’d been a part of- so her definition of digital citizenship was based in practice and experience. Unlike my definition of digital citizenship, Sarah’s definition included a list of helpful and very practical guidelines for internet participation. For example, her list says, “give credit where credit is due,” which touches on licensing and IP concerns that are prevalent in digital citizenship (and not-s0-prevalent in “regular” citizenship). She also addresses the importance of tolerance in digital citizenship, saying “inclusive trumps exclusive,” and “try to see things from others’ perspectives.” She also included “contribute what you can/when you can,” which I really liked– it helps us conceptualize digital citizenship as an active, participatory thing instead of a list of things “not” to do online.

In Erin’s post, she started off by describing how she always thought of “digital citizenship” like being a “good citizen,” which equates to being an admirable, virtuous “do-gooder.” She mentioned that all lessons on digital citizenship that she’d heard of always started off with prohibitions against bullying and against posting embarrassing pictures online (think of the college admissions! And the future employers!) She continues, “As our world moves more and more online, I think “digital citizenship” goes beyond just being a “good citizen” online. Part of digital citizenship is knowing how to use many of the programs that we find online…” I appreciate that she offered a deeper conceptualization of digital citizenship by including the ability to use and interact with online tools fluently as part of digital citizenship. So, it’s about being a “good citizen” and following the golden rule and all that, but to her, it’s also about having the ability to navigate the different digital tools that are critical to full participation in modern life.

Dillon’s post was like mine, in that it was longer and more theoretical (and less practical, like Sarah, Erin, or Martha’s posts). However, I think Dillon and I have different ideas about what constitutes traditional citizenship and as a result, what constitutes digital citizenship. He says he doesn’t think digital citizenship exists, and says, “The main reason for that is life online is not a ‘citizenship’ because it’s an exclusive product of voluntary association which has its own problems and benefits and is inherently a non-political entity since force and expropriation isn’t a factor. Things and communities can be ‘politicized’ but the internet is not a political entity.”

So if I understand it correctly, Dillion argues that the primary distinction between citizenship and digital citizenship is as follows: citizenship is defined by our relationship with and submission to the authority of a territorial sovereign that exercises expropriation and force, and in comparison, life online consists of “voluntary association.”

I think the primary difference between my post and Dillon’s post is that he chose a definition of citizenship that is more specific than mine. He defines citizenship as a legal/political relationship between citizen and state. In other words, we are citizens because we have a legal relationship with a state, and that state can choose to expropriate (tax) and use force to maintain control. (Max Weber‘s definition of a state is that it is the only entity that has a monopoly of force… i.e., it’s the only institution that can legitimately use force, such as police/military).

So, on the other hand, my definition also encompasses sociological components, such as group membership or identity, as well as the benefits that we derive from the relationship we have with the state (hence my emphasis on rights, obligations, and community as I described in this post). Dillon’s definition primarily defines citizenship as what the state takes from you, whereas I ascribe to a view of citizenship that constructs more of a citizen-state exchange. When you use an expanded definition of citizenship like I did, I believe that it becomes easier to apply concepts of “citizenship” to digital life. We have rights within our state and online, we have obligations/duties within our state and online, and we have the opportunity to participate in community within our state and online. Overall, I enjoyed completing this close reading of Dillon’s post; it definitely challenged me to think about my own ideas of digital citizenship very critically.

Martha’s post is more similar to Sarah and Erin’s posts. She begins by defining digital literacy, explaining that “digital literacy is the understanding of how the devices work and how to use the devices along with understanding the content served up through technology.” According to Martha, we FIRST need to understand what digital literacy is, because digital citizenship is defined as how we engage with digital literacy. We have rights and responsibilities in how we exercise our digital literacy, and that’s what composes digital citizenship.

Summing It Up…

Reviewing all of these posts, I am struck by the variances in tone and main ideas. Here’s the main points of each post reviewed, in a nutshell:

  • Me: description of citizenship, and an attempt to connect traditional citizenship conceptualizations to digital citizenship
  • Sarah: practical normals/moral guidelines based on her own experience in online communities
  • Erin: behave yourself online, but also know how to use the tools to effectively navigate an increasingly digital world (digital fluency)
  • Dillon: digital citizenship doesn’t necessarily exist because life online is composed of free association and doesn’t involve violence
  • Martha: digital citizenship is how we interact with our own digital literacies

While certain elements of each of these posts resonate with me more than others, I think all of them are useful as we develop a conversation about digital citizenship. I appreciate that each student emphasized different components of digital citizenship, and spending significant time completing a close and critical reading of each of their posts has certainly deepened my own understanding about digital citizenship. I’ll be curious to hear if Sarah, Erin, Dillon and Martha agree with my comparison and discussion of their posts.

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Fire Away

In this assignment, we are tasked with sharing three outstanding questions related to the Americans with Disabilities Act, accessibility or anything else we’ve explored as part of this collection.

These are my three “most pressing” questions that remain at the end of this collection.

  1. My first question is not particularly profound but it certainly has been bugging me: what is Grok and Korg? I did my own quick searching and found this which would indicate it’s a reference to a kid’s book about a boy from the stone age (Grok) who magically gets propelled into the future, and so the book details his adventures living with a modern-day family (Korg’s). So how does story apply to this collection? (Especially because I haven’t ever read the book, I feel like I may be missing an important piece of the puzzle).
  2. I would like to know how well the current system of disability services actually works in higher education. In other words, do students who experience disabilities perform as well as their non-disabled peers? Are the accommodations actually serving their purpose of achieving equity in education? If we actually ask the disabled students themselves, would they say they are getting the services they need? This article would imply that it isn’t working so well, so what can we do in higher education to make it better, without overburdening faculty?
  3. Next, in my post on ADA and unreasonable/reasonable accommodations in higher education, I discussed what types of accommodations could be considered reasonable, and which could be considered unreasonable. Chris suggested that I include a “gray” section (in the second page of this infographic), discussing scenarios that would maybe be reasonable… but maybe be unreasonable. So I’ve come up with 4 more scenarios, each of which do not have a clear-cut answer as to what the professor should do. So the “pressing question” here is, what should the professor do in each of these situations?
    • A student has a therapy dog that needs to come to class with her. However, another student is terribly allergic to dogs. Should the professor accommodate for the needs of the student who experiences a disability, or accommodate the allergy of the other student?
    • A professor wants to give a short, 10-minute timed pop quiz at the beginning of 7 class meetings throughout the semester. However, a student has a documented accommodation for extended time and distraction-free environment for tests/quizzes. Planning for a distraction-free environment requires proctoring and thus advance notice, defeating the purpose of a “pop” quiz. Extended time on the test will also mean the student will miss class time.
    • A student is taking a Spanish conversation class, but he has a physical condition that requires him to miss class for weeks at a time. Over 75% of the grading for the course depends on in-class work and group work.
    • A student has a visual impairment that requires her to have preferential seating in the front of the class. However, the student also has a physical condition that requires her to get up and move around frequently, which can be disruptive to the rest of the class.
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Grok and Korg: Collaborative Discussion

For this assignment, I worked with Heidi, Tatiana, and Sarah to compare and contrast our experiences and final products from last collection’s “Collaborate (A Little)” exercise. We connected via Twitter, and then collaboratively created a list of 9 discussion questions using a shared Google doc. Before our Google Hangout video, Heidi prepped a spreadsheet that outlined each of the variations on the 10 statements. We discussed the Collaborate posts from these 5 groups:

D’Arcy, Valerie, Sarah, and Linnea

Heidi, Nick, and Samantha

Martha and Erin

Noelle and Tatiana

Rebecca and John

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Search & Research: EFF

The Electronic Frontier Foundation

The red and black logo of the Electronic Frontier Foundation, whose motto is, "Defending Your Rights in the Digital World"

The Electronic Frontier Foundation is a nonprofit, public interest law firm that has been working for people’s online rights and civil liberties since 1990. Primarily, they focus on privacy, the freedom of speech, expression, and association, and consumer rights to intellectual property (such as fair use). According to EFF, they “work to ensure that rights and freedoms are enhanced and protected as our use of technology grows.” To accomplish their work, EFF analyzes policies, promotes grassroots activism and technology development, and pursues “impact litigation.”

6 icons that represent the 6 major areas in which the EFF works
EFF advocates for free speech, fair use, the rights of innovators, individual privacy, protection of digital freedoms internationally, and government transparency.

Major EFF Initiatives

This article provides a succinct overview of the EFF’s major initiatives.

  1. Transparency Project. EFF’s transparency project seeks to ensure that the government doesn’t overstep its bounds, and that civil liberties of citizens are protected. In a post-9/11 world, government surveillance is increasingly a concern. EFF lawyers use the Freedom of Information Act to request relevant information and keep the government accountable.
  2. Litigation for Equal Rights/Fairer Laws. EFF frequently uses litigation to push back against legislation that violate digital freedoms. This link shows all of EFF court cases.
  3. Technology Research and Development. EFF is working to develop technological projects that protect freedom and privacy online, like HTTPS Everywhere, MyTube, and Switzerland.
  4. Codifying Digital Free Speech. EFF seeks to protect the free speech of bloggers and coders and prevent censorship. According to EFF, when you go online, your freedoms should come along with you. That becomes particularly important when talking about online free speech, expression, and association.
  5. Protecting Privacy. New technology makes invasion of privacy even easier than it was in the past. EFF works to protect digital privacy, including litigation against NSA spying, protection of medical privacy, and transparency in drone surveillance (among many other projects).
  6. Open Wireless Movement. EFF and a coalition of other organizations have launched the Open Wireless Movement and are “working on new technologies and best practices that will allow individuals, businesses, and community organizations to open up their wireless networks—while not sacrificing privacy, security, and quality.”

This is just a snapshot of the work that EFF does. Go here and click through the icons at the top, and you’ll get a better idea of the depth and breadth of the EFF’s work in protecting digital freedom. EFF’s work is all about how citizens interact with the digital world, which makes the connections to this class (digital citizenship) fairly evident. EFF addresses fair use and intellectual property (which we discussed extensively as part of Collection 3), as well as things like internet privacy, which also seems to be a recurring theme/point of discussion throughout the class to this point. EFF invites participation and depends on membership/donations, so if you believe in EFF’s mission and activities, EFF gives you an opportunity to practically exercise digital citizenship.

For more research…

  • This article from The Guardian, posted on July 21, 2016, explores one of the EFF’s contemporary court cases. The EFF recently filed a lawsuit against the US government, claiming that the Digital Millennium Copyright Act is unconstitutional. Particularly, EFF is arguing that rule 1201, which relates to Digital Rights Management, is unlawful. (Digital rights management makes it illegal to break a access control on copyrighted material). The lawsuit could take years to be decided, but a decision in EFF’s favor would be a significant change in copyright and intellectual property law.
  • In this 2011 podcast, Mari Frank, attorney and privacy consultant, interviews Lee Tien. Lee Tien is a Senior Staff Attorney for the EFF, specializing in the Freedom of Information Act and internet privacy. In this podcast, Tien discusses EFF’s work in protecting privacy online, and discusses the flow of personal information from business to government.
  • This blog post provides a succinct overview of the EFF’s mission, and identifies 7 of the “top” initiatives/programs undertaken by EFF. Because EFF’s work is so extensive, this post is useful because it simply highlights a few of the EFF’s most interesting projects.
  • In this video clip, Stephen Colbert interviews Cindy Cohn, who is now the Executive Director of EFF. Previously, she served as EFF’s Legal Director and General Counsel. In 2013, Cohn was named one of the 100 most influential lawyers in America. Despite Colbert’s shenanigans, Cohn manages to discuss a few off EFF’s key issues in the interview, such as net neutrality, fair use, and freedom of speech online.
  • This article in the Washington Post describes the immediate impact of the Snowden on EFF’s work, and the relationship between EFF and Washington. The article explains: “Having started as a public interest law firm and dabbled in lobbying, EFF in San Francisco evolved into something more like a civil liberties think tank that happened to employ teams of crack technologists and grass-roots political activists.” It outlines the culture, mission, and values of EFF, and describes some of its primary techniques EFF uses to accomplish its goals (such as impact litigation).
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Exploring the ADA

To answer the following questions and explore the ADA in more depth, I chose to create a Prezi, an infographic, and a flow chart.

Go here to see my response to these first two questions:

  • What is the Americans with Disabilities Act and who does it protect?
  • Why are the terms “Title II” and “Section 504” important to this discussion?

Next, I made an infographic to answer this question: what is IDEA and who does it protect? How does it differ from the ADA?

Image of textbooks and school-related items, with the following definition of reasonable accommodations superimposed: "Schools have to be willing to change the way things are usually done to make sure that a student with a disability can participate equally. This might mean changing rules/policies, removing barriers, or providing aids, services, or assistive technology."Lastly, I chose to answer these last three questions in a flow chart. I grouped these questions together because I think understanding reasonable and unreasonable accommodations will be most applicable to my future working life. These are the questions answered in the flow chart:

  • What is a “reasonable accommodation” and what else are those called in the educational setting?
  • What might make an accommodation unreasonable?
  • The big one: how do ADA, IDEA and other legislation in the readings and your exploration so far apply to you in your working (or future working) life (where might or do you find yourself needing to take ADA, IDEA, etc. into account?)
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